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1.  Evidence that irradiation of far-infrared rays inhibits mammary tumour growth in SHN mice.


Anticancer Res. 1999 May-Jun;19(3A):1797-800.

Nagasawa H, Udagawa Y, Kiyokawa S.Source



 Experimental Animal Research Laboratory, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Japan. 



To evaluate the effect of irradiation of far infrared rays (FIR), the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours of SHN mice was compared among 3 groups: the control was kept until the end of experiment on the normal rack in the absence of FIR and Experimental group I was constantly exposed to FIR. Experimental group Il was raised as the control followed by movement to the FIR rack after mammary tumour appearance. While there was little difference between the control and Experimental group I in mammary tumour growth for 16 days, Experimental group II was significantly lower than the control in this parameter. Furthermore, the percentage of rapidly growing tumours showing greater than 200% of growth rate was apparently lower in Experimental group II. Associated with this, epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mammary tumours, anterior pituitary weight and serum leptin level were significantly decreased in Experimental group II.  

The findings suggest that whole-body FIR irradiation at ambient temperature could be a possible way of a hyperthermic therapy for tumours.


2. Inhibition by whole-body hyperthermia with far-infrared rays of the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours in mice.


Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5B):4125-30.

Udagawa Y, Nagasawa H, Kiyokawa S.Source



Experimental Animal Research Laboratory, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Japan. 



To evaluate possible therapeutic benefits of irradiation with far-infrared rays (FIR) on breast cancer, we examined combined effects of the chronic exposure to FIR at ambient temperature (26.5-27.5 degrees C) and the whole-body hyperthermia induced by FIR (WBH) (35-41 degrees C) on the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours of mice. A high mammary tumour strain of SHN virgin mice born on the normal rack or FIR rack were maintained on the respective racks until mammary tumour appearance. When the mammary tumour size reached approximately 7 mm, some mice in each group received no further treatment (Control and FIR groups, respectively) and the remaining mice received 3 hours of WBH each of 5 consecutive days (C + WBH and FIR + WBH groups, respectively). There was little difference between the control and FIR groups in the tumour growth over 10 days of examination. On the other hand, the tumour growth was inhibited significantly in both C + WBH and FIR + WBH groups and the degree of inhibition was similar. The data confirmed that the chronic exposure to FIR at ambient temperature has little effect on the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours in mice.

Whole-Body Hyperthermia with FIR, however, strongly inhibited the tumour growth without deleterious side-effects, while chronic FIR irradiation itself again had little effect in this process.

This Whole-Body Hyperthermia regimen may serve as a useful animal model for long-term studies of a noninvasive treatment of breast cancer.


3. Effects of combined treatment with coffee cherry and whole-body hyperthermia on the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours in SHN mice.


In Vivo. 2000 May-Jun;14(3):431-5.Links
Udagawa Y, Nagasawa H.



Experimental Animal Research Laboratory, Meiji University, Kawasaki, Japan.

Based on findings that free access in drinking water of the extract of coffee cherry (CC), the residue left after the removal of coffee beans, and whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) induced by far-infrared ray (FIR) can markedly inhibit the growth of spontaneous mammary tumours of SHN mice, the effects of the combined treatment with these agents were examined in this study.

The significant inhibition of tumour growth by single treatment with either CC or WBH was not enhanced by their combination.

Meanwhile, the body weight loss during WBH was significantly decreased by CC. Normal and preneoplastic growth of mammary glands and plasma component levels were affected little by either treatment.

The findings confirmed the "normalization effects" of CC usually obtained with natural products and stress the need for prudence in the choice of any agent, natural or synthetic, to be applied simultaneously to increase the efficacy of WBH.


4. Effects of hydroxyapatite in combination with far-infrared rays on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice.


Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(4):495-505.

Udagawa Y1, Ishigame H, Nagasawa H



We have found that the administration of a diet containing 5% hydroxyapatite (HAP) derived from pig and cattle bones, and exposure to far-infrared rays (FIR) markedly inhibited spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice.

Thus, the effect of combined treatment with HAP and FIR on mammary tumorigenesis was examined. The significant inhibition of tumor development by individual treatment with HAP or FIR was not enhanced by combined treatment; instead, the decrease in the inhibitory effect of HAP with age was ameliorated. Associated with this, life span was elongated and a decline in ovarian function was prevented by HAP plus FIR. Normal and preneoplastic growth of mammary glands and plasma component levels were not significantly affected by any treatment.

The findings indicate that hydroxyapatite and far-infrared rays have characteristics common to most natural products; in combination with other agents, they have little additive effect, when each is highly active.


5. Far Infrared Ray Irradiation Induces Intracellular Generation of Nitric Oxide in Breast Cancer Cells

Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering, Vol 29, No 1 (2009)

Ting-Kai Leung, Chi-Ming Lee, Ming-Yu Lin, Yuan-Soon Ho, Ching-Shyang Chen, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Yung-Sheng Lin



Far infrared radiation has been used in many health-promoting applications, but the cellular mechanisms have not been elucidated. We investigated the influence of non-thermal-enhanced Far infrared radiation for generating nitric oxide (NO) in breast cancer cells. We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with FIR irradiation or left untreated, and measured the inducible NO concentrations using the DAF-FM diacetate (4-amino-5-methylamino-2’,7’-difluorofluorescein) technique. Mean fluorescence intensities of DAF-FM assays from different breast cancer cells showed progressive and cumulative increases in NO with Far infrared irradiation. Significant inductions of NO synthesis in breast cancer cells were observed both during and after Far infrared  irradiation. Including data from a literature review, we discuss possible therapeutic roles of Far infrared radiation for breast cancers through the induction of NO generation.

‘‘Nitric Oxide  seems to act in vitro as an inhibitory factor of carcinogenesis in Human breast Cancer cells.’’ - Reveneau et al 1999.


6. A novel thermal treatment modality for controlling breast tumor growth and progression.


Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012; 2012:5703-6. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347290.

Xie Y1, Liu P, Xu LX.



The new concept of keeping primary tumour under control in situ to suppress distant foci sheds light on the novel treatment of metastatic tumour. Hyperthermia is considered as one of the means for controlling tumour growth. In this study, a novel thermal modality was built to introduce hyperthermia effect on tumour to suppress its growth and progression using 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma, a common animal model of metastatic breast cancer.

A mildly raised temperature (i.e.39°C) was imposed on the skin surface of the implanted tumor using a thermal heating pad. Periodic heating (12 hours per day) was carried out for 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days, respectively.

The tumour growth rate was found significantly decreased in comparison to the control without hyperthermia. Biological evidences associated with tumour angiogenesis and metastasis were examined using histological analyses.

Accordingly, the effect of mild hyperthermia on immune cell infiltration into tumours was also investigated. It was demonstrated that a delayed tumour growth and malignancy progression was achieved by mediating tumour cell apoptosis, vascular injury, degrading metastasis potential and as well as inhibiting the immunosuppressive cell myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Further mechanistic studies will be performed to explore the quantitative relationship between tumour progression and thermal dose in the near future.

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